Chandrayaan-3 represents the subsequent phase of the Chandrayaan-2 mission, aimed at showcasing a comprehensive ability to achieve a secure landing and conduct mobile exploration on the lunar surface. This venture encompasses both a Lander and Rover configuration. The initiative is slated for liftoff via the LVM3 launch vehicle from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR in Sriharikota.
The propulsion module is responsible for ferrying the Lander and Rover configuration to a lunar orbit of 100 km. This module is equipped with the Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) payload, which holds the task of scrutinizing Earth from the lunar orbit, delving into spectral and Polari metric measurements.
Within the Lander segment, significant payloads are carried. The Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) takes charge of gauging thermal conductivity and temperature. Meanwhile, the Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) is dedicated to assessing seismicity around the landing site. Adding to this, the Langmuir Probe (LP) contributes by estimating plasma density and its fluctuations. An additional inclusion is the passive Laser Retroreflector Array, contributed by NASA, employed for studies involving lunar laser ranging.
The Rover, on the other hand, is equipped with the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS), which together facilitate the determination of elemental composition in the proximity of the landing site.
Chandrayaan-3 is composed of an indigenous trio: the Lander module (LM), Propulsion module (PM), and a Rover. The primary goal revolves around the innovation and validation of new technologies essential for interplanetary missions. The Lander’s key attribute lies in its ability to softly touch down at a predetermined lunar site. It then proceeds to deploy the Rover, which undertakes on-site chemical analyses of the lunar terrain throughout its journey. Both the Lander and the Rover carry scientific payloads designed for lunar surface experiments.
The Propulsion Module (PM) serves the vital purpose of shepherding the LM from its launch vehicle injection up to the final lunar orbit of 100 km in a circular polar trajectory. It then disengages from the LM. Notably, the Propulsion Module includes an extra scientific payload, enhancing its value. This payload becomes operational post-separation from the Lander Module.
The chosen launcher for Chandrayaan-3 is the LVM3 M4, entrusted with the task of positioning the integrated module within an Elliptic Parking Orbit (EPO), characterized by dimensions of approximately 170 x 36500 km.